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Dr Andrew J Hall

Senior Lecturer in Chemistry

Medway School of Pharmacy

  • +44 (0)1634 20 2952

 

Andy obtained his BSc (Hons) in Applied Chemistry from the University of Aston in 1990 and received his PhD (Chemistry) from the same institution in 1995. 

He then held post-doctoral research positions at the University of Strathclyde (1994-1996) and the University of Manchester (1996-1999), before moving to the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany to take up an EU-TMR fellowship.  After three years in Mainz, Andy moved to the Institute for Environmental Research at the University of Dortmund, Germany, again as a research fellow. 

In 2006, Andy was appointed to his first academic position as a Senior Lecturer in Chemistry at the University of Sunderland’s Pharmacy School.  Andy joined Medway School of Pharmacy as a Senior Lecturer in Chemistry in September 2009.  Since then he has served on the Academic Council of the University of Greenwich (2011-2014). Within the School, Andy has had a number of roles, including Head of Examinations & Assessments (2011-2016) and Director of Undergraduate Studies (2015-2016). He is currently the Programme Leader for the Foundation Degree in Applied Chemical Sciences, a distance/blended learning programme forming part of Higher Apprenticeships.

Andy’s research focusses on polymer and materials chemistry, with emphasis on the application of these materials. Over his career, he has contributed to 38 high quality publications, reviews and books (> 1500 citations, h-index = 22 [Scopus]). He is also an inventor on seven granted patents.
Externally, he is a board member of the Society for Molecular Imprinting and a Visiting Professor (2017) at the University of Toulon, France.

Andy currently supervises three PhD students.

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Andy’s research focusses on polymer and materials chemistry, with a particular interest in molecular recognition (supramolecular chemistry) and materials applications. Of particular interest is the marriage of these two areas for the synthesis of macromolecular receptors via the technique of molecular imprinting.
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are an example of template-synthesised materials, which differ from this general class in that removal of the template leaves behind cavities that are complementary to the template in terms of size, shape and functionality. This field can be viewed as a marriage of supramolecular and polymer chemistry.  MIPs have been proposed for use in many application areas, e.g. selective separations, sensing, drug discovery, targeted drug delivery and enzyme-like catalysis.  Andy is currently working on the design and synthesis of novel functional and cross-linking monomers, together with the fabrication of nanoscale materials for use in medical diagnostics.

Continuing the supramolecular chemistry theme, Andy is also researching into the design and synthesis of low molecular weight gelators.  These are compounds whose self-assembly leads to the formation of fibrils that induce solvent gelation.  He is particularly interested in compounds able to gel water at low concentration to form hydrogels, which have potential application in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, food and cosmetics industries.

Andy is also engaged in the creation of nanoscale materials for the colorimetric/fluorimetric detection of bacteria, with the aim of increasing the speed and selectivity of diagnosis of bacterial infections.

Current Projects

Design and Synthesis of Novel Monomers for Recognition and Crosslinking

The success of molecular imprinting as a technology has been based largely on the use of just one functional monomer, methacrylic acid (MAA), and one cross-linking monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA). While the MAA/EDMA systems undoubtedly lead to MIPs demonstrating high affinity for their targets, these high affinity binding sites tend to be in short supply. Non-specific binding can also be a problem for anything other than (trace) analytical applications.

One potential solution to these problems is the identification and synthesis of functional monomers tailored to particular functional groups or even to individual templates. This requires some synthetic organic chemistry effort but many benefits may be derived from creating such bespoke functional monomer solutions. These benefits include higher yields of higher affinity sites and the ability to incorporate secondary features into the monomers, e.g. optical read-out of binding events, cross-linking, etc.

We are also interested in moving to more functional crosslinking monomers, made primarily from bio-renewable resources, again with a view to enhance selectivity and reduce non-specific binding.

Former group member: Dr. Stefania Lettieri (2011-2015) [now a post-doctoral fellow in the group of Prof. Silvia Giordani at the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy]

Past visiting scientist: Dr. Zsanett Dorko (2015) [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary]

External collaborators:

Prof Luigi Agrofoglio (University of Orléans, France)

Prof. Antonio Martin-Esteban (National Institute of Agricultural and Food Research and Technology [INAI], Madrid, Spain)

Dr Clovia Holdsworth (University of Newcastle, Australia)

Prof Karsten Haupt (Compiègne University of Technology, France)

Prof George Horvai (Budapest University of Technology & Economics, Hungary)

Prof Wlodzimierz Kutner (Polish Academy of Science, Poland)

Dr Panagiotis Manesiotis (Queen’s University Belfast, UK)

Dr Simona Nica (Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania)

Prof Börje Sellergren
(Malmö University, Sweden)

Supramolecular hydrogels

In recent years there has been increased interest in the use of hydrogels arising from the self-assembly of low molecular weight compounds. A number of research groups work on peptide-based gelators and on exploiting proteinogenic building blocks for a wide range of applications, e.g. cell culture.

We are investigating the efficient and scalable preparation of low molecular weight (hydro)gelators based on low-cost, bio-renewable, carbohydrate-based starting materials.  Building on existing knowledge of aromatic carbohydrate amphiphiles, we are currently designing and preparing compounds via short synthetic routes and then assessing their potential as hydro- and organogelators.
We are pursuing the use of our materials in a range of biomedical, cosmetics and foodstuffs applications.

PhD students: Efstratios Sitsanidis (2015 - )
Former group member: Carmen Piras (2013 - 2016) [[now a post-doctoral fellow in the group of Prof. Wim de Borggraeve at KU Leuven, Belgium]

nternal collaborator: Dr Alison Edwards

External collaborators:

Prof Matthew Gibson (University of Warwick, UK)
 
Prof Rein Ulijn (CUNY Advanced Science Research Centre, New York, USA)

Biogelx

Smart Silica Nanoparticles

Nanomaterial research continues to expand and capture the interest of both industry and the general public.  Indeed, demand for these materials is estimated to rise to US$5.5 billion in 2016 (from US$1 billion in 2013).  However, the full potential of NPs in applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic arenas will only be realised if their surfaces are efficiently coated with bio-recognition elements, e.g. antibodies. Traditional coating approaches are either unreliable or fail, due to the low compatibility of the NP surface and the active sites of the antibodies. Given the expense of antibodies, this problem becomes extremely important at industrial scales.

We are aiming to address these problems by using molecular imprinting as a new strategy to “fix” antibodies to NP surfaces and to test the resulting NPs in a variety of assays aimed at both diagnostic and targeted drug delivery applications.

Former group member: Dr. Filip Kunč (2013 - 2017) [now a research associate at Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Canada]

Collaborators: Dr. Vladimir Gubala & Dr. Bernhard Gibbs

Nanoprobes for Bacterial Detection

The rapid, specific and selective detection and diagnosis of bacterial infections remains a major challenge in both human and veterinary medicine. The majority of molecular probes for bacterial detection suffer from low sensitivities. The ideal probe would be able to detect small numbers of bacteria, both in vitro and in vivo. It should also be able to differentiate not only different bacteria, but also bacterial infections from other pathologies.

We are aiming to address these issues through the development of sensitive, specific and rapid detection methods for bacterial species through the design, synthesis and application of nanoscale colorimetric/fluorimetric probes.

PhD student: Giorgia Giovannini (PhD student, 2014- )

Collaborator: Dr. Vladimir Gubala


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  • Giovannini G, Kunc F, Piras CC, Stranik O, Edwards AA, Hall AJ, Gubala V (2017).  Stabilizing Silica Nanoparticles in Hydrogel: Impact on storage and polydispersity. RSC Advances 7: 19924-19933.
  • Mattos dos Santos P, Hall AJ, Manesiotis P (2016). Stoichiometric Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Recognition of Anti-Cancer Pro-drug Tegafur. J. Chromatogr. B 1021: 197-203.
  • Krstulja A, Lettieri S, Hall AJ, Delépée R, Favetta P, Agrofoglio LA (2014). Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers using 2’,3’,5’-Tri-O-acyl-Uridines as Templates for Pyrimidine Nucleoside Recognition.  Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406: 6275-6284.
  • Li B, Xu J, Hall AJ, Haupt K, Tse Sum Bui B (2014). Water-compatible silica sol–gel molecularly imprinted polymer as a potential delivery system for the controlled release of salicylic acid.  J. Mol. Recog. 27: 559-565.
  • Váradi L, Gray M, Groundwater PW, Hall AJ, James AL, Orenga S, Perry JD, Anderson RJ (2012). Synthesis and evaluation of fluorogenic 2-amino-1,8-naphthyridine derivatives for the detection of bacteria. Org. Biomol. Chem. 10: 2578-2589.
  • Emgenbroich M, Borrelli C, Lazraq I, Vilela F, Hall AJ, Oxelbark J, De Lorenzi E, Courtois J, Irgum K, Karim K, Sellergren B (2008) A pTyr-imprinted polymer receptor for recognition of tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. Chem. Eur. J. 14: 9516-9529.
  • Urraca JL, Moreno-Bondi MC, Orellana G, Sellergren B, Hall AJ (2007).  Molecularly imprinted polymers as antibody mimics in automated on-line fluorescent competitive assays. Anal. Chem. 79: 4915-4923.
  • Urraca JL, Hall AJ, Moreno-Bondi MC, Sellergren, B (2006) A Stoichiometric Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Class-Selective Recognition of Antibiotics in Aqueous Media.  Angew. Chem. 118: 5282-5285; Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 45: 5158-5161.
  • Manesiotis P, Hall, AJ, Courtois J, Irgum K Sellergren B (2005). An Artificial Riboflavin Receptor Prepared via a Template Analogue Imprinting Strategy. Angew. Chem. 117: 3970-3974; Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl.  44: 3902-3906.

Book chapters

  • B. Sellergren, B.; Hall, A.J. In Supramolecular Chemistry: from Molecules to Nanomaterials, Steed,
    J.W.; Gale, P.A., Eds; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; pp 3255-3282.
  • Hall, A.J.; Emgenbroich, M.; Sellergren, B. In Templates in Chemistry II, Topics in Current Chemistry,
    Vol. 249, Schalley, C.A.; Dötz, K.-H.; Vögtle, F., Eds.; Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany, 2005; pp 317-349.
  • Sellergren, B.; A.J. Hall, A.J. In Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Man-Made Mimics of Antibodies and Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry, Techniques and instrumentation in analytical chemistry, Vol. 23, Sellergren, B., Ed.; Elsevier Science B.V.: Amsterdam, 2001; pp 21-57.

Patents

  • Hall, A.J. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers. US Patent 9,464,150, October 11, 2016.
  • Sellergren, B.; Emgenbroich, M. & Hall, A.J. Imprinted Polymers with Affinity for Phosphorylated Proteins and Peptides. US Patent 9,329,186, May 3, 2016.
  • Sellergren B.; Titirici M.-M. & Hall A.J. Molecularly imprinted surfaces using surface-bound templates. US Patent 9,035,025. May 19, 2015.
  • Sellergren, B.; Manesiotis, P.; Hall, A.J. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Extraction of Components from Foodstruffs. US Patent 7,750,090, July 6, 2010.
  • Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B.; Karmalkar, R.; Chenon, K. Functional Monomers for Molecular Recognition and Catalysis. US Patent 7,332,553, February 19, 2008.
  • Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B.; Karmalkar, R.; Chenon, K. Functional Monomers for Molecular Recognition and Catalysis. US Patent 7,208,557, April 24, 2007.
  • Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B.; Karmalkar, R.; Chenon, K. Functional Monomers for Molecular Recognition and Catalysis. US Patent 6,870,021, March 22, 2005.

Full publication history

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Research articles

  • Giovannini G, Kunc F, Piras CC, Stranik O, Edwards AA, Hall AJ, Gubala V (2017).  Stabilizing Silica Nanoparticles in Hydrogel: Impact on storage and polydispersity. RSC Advances 7: 19924-19933.
  • Mattos dos Santos P, Hall AJ, Manesiotis P (2016). Stoichiometric Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Recognition of Anti-Cancer Pro-drug Tegafur. J. Chromatogr. B 1021: 197-203.
  • Krstulja A, Lettieri S, Hall AJ, Delépée R, Favetta P, Agrofoglio LA (2014). Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers using 2’,3’,5’-Tri-O-acyl-Uridines as Templates for Pyrimidine Nucleoside Recognition.  Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406: 6275-6284.
  • Li B, Xu J, Hall AJ, Haupt K, Tse Sum Bui B (2014). Water-compatible silica sol–gel molecularly imprinted polymer as a potential delivery system for the controlled release of salicylic acid.  J. Mol. Recog. 27: 559-565
  • Váradi, L.; Gray, M.; Groundwater, P.W.; Hall, A.J.; James, A.L.; Orenga, S.; Perry, J.D.; Anderson, R.J. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorogenic 2-amino-1,8-naphthyridine derivatives for the detection of bacteria. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2012, 10, 2578-2589.
  • Emgenbroich, M.; Borrelli, C.; Lazraq, I.; Vilela, F.; Hall, A.J.; Oxelbark, J.; De Lorenzi, E.; Courtois, J.; Irgum, K.; Karim, K.; Sellergren, B. A pTyr-imprinted polymer receptor for recognition of tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. Chem. Eur. J. 2008, 14, 9516-9529.
  • Kamau, S.D.; Hodge, P.; Hall, A.J.; Dad, S.; Ben-Haida, A. Cyclo-depolymerization of olefin-containing polymers to give macrocyclic oligomers by metathesis and the entropically-driven ROMP of the olefin-containing macrocyclic esters. Polymer 2007, 48, 6808-6822.
  • Urraca, J.L.; Moreno-Bondi, M.C.; Orellana, G.; Sellergren, B.; Hall, A.J. Molecularly imprinted polymers as antibody mimics in automated on-line fluorescent competitive assays. Anal. Chem. 2007, 79, 4915-4923.
  • Urraca, J.L.; Moreno-Bondi, M.C.; Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B. Direct Extraction of Penicillin G and Derivatives from Aqueous Samples using a Stoichiometrically Imprinted Polymer. Anal. Chem. 2007, 79, 695-701.
  • Skogsberg, U.; Meyer, C.; Rehbein, J.; Fischer, G.; Schauff, S.; Welsch, N.; Albert, K.; Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B. A Solid-State and Suspended-State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
    Spectroscopic Investigation of a 9-Ethyladenine Molecularly Imprinted Polymer. Polymer 2007, 48, 229-238.
  • Hall, A.J.; Quaglia, M.; Manesiotis, P.; Achilli, L.; De Lorenzi, E.; Sellergren, B. Polymeric Receptors for the Recognition of Folic Acid and Related Compounds via Substructure Imprinting (IV). Anal. Chem. 2006, 78, 8362-8367.
  • Hall, A.; Hodge, P. Kamau, S.D.; Ben-Haida, A. Acyclic Diene Metathesis (ADMET) Polymerization of Allyl Undec-10-enoate and Some Related Esters. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691, 5431-5437.
  • Urraca, J.L..; Hall, A.J.; Moreno-Bondi, M.C.; Sellergren, B. A Stoichiometric Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Class-Selective Recognition of Antibiotics in Aqueous Media. Angew. Chem. 2006, 118, 5282-5285; Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2006, 45, 5158-5161.
  • Manesiotis, P.; Hall, A.J.; Courtois, J.; Irgum, K.; Sellergren, B. An Artificial Riboflavin Receptor Prepared via a Template Analogue Imprinting Strategy. Angew. Chem., 2005, 117, 3970-3974; Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., 2005, 44, 3902-3906.
  • Hall, A.J.; Lanza-Sellergren, F.; Manesiotis, P.; Sellergren, B. Non-Covalent Imprinting of Phosphorous Esters. Anal. Chim. Acta 2005, 538 (1-2), 9-14.
  • Manesiotis, P.; Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B. Improved Receptors for Imides Based on Novel Fluorescent Donor-Acceptor-Donor Reporter Monomers. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 2729-2738.
  • Hall, A.J.; Manesiotis, P.; Emgenbroich, M.; Quaglia, M.; De Lorenzi, E.; Sellergren, B. Urea Host Monomers for Stoichiometric Molecular Imprinting of Oxyanions. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 1732-1736.
  • Manesiotis, P.; Hall, A.J.; Emgenbroich, M.; Quaglia, M.; De Lorenzi, E.; Sellergren, B. An Enantioselective Imprinted Receptor for Z-glutamate Exhibiting a Binding Induced Color Change. Chem. Commun. 2004, 2278-2279.
  • Hall, A.J.; Achilli, L.; Manesiotis, P.; Quaglia, M.; De Lorenzi, E.; Sellergren, B. A Substructure Approach Towards Polymeric Receptors Targeting Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors. II: Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Against Z-L-Glutamic Acid Showing Affinity for Larger Molecules. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 9132-9135.
  • Titirici, M.M.; Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B. Hierarchical Imprinting Using Crude Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis Products as Templates. Chem. Mater. 2003, 15, 822-824.
  • Sellergren, B.; Rückert, B.; Hall, A.J. Layer-by-Layer Grafting of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers via Iniferter Modified Supports. Adv. Mater. 2002, 14, 1204-1208.
  • Rückert, B.; Hall, A.J.; & Sellergren, B. Molecularly Imprinted Composite Materials via Iniferter Modified Supports. J. Mater. Chem., 2002, 12, 2275-2280.
  • Lanza, F.; Rüther, M.; Hall, A.J.; Dauwe, C.; Sellergren, B. Studies on The Process Of Formation, Nature and Stability of Binding Sites in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 2002, 723, 93-103.
  • Hall, A.J.; Manesiotis, P.; Mossing, J.T.; Sellergren, B. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) Against Uracils: Functional Monomer Design, Monomer-Template Interactions in Solution and MIP Performance in Chromatography. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 2002, 723, 11-15.
  • Titirici, M.M.; Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B. Hierarchically Imprinted Stationary Phases: Mesoporous Polymer Beads Containing Surface-Confined Binding Sites for Adenine. Chem. Mater., 2002, 14, 21-23.
  • Sulitzky, C.; Rückert, B.; Hall, A.J.; Lanza, F.; Unger, K.K.; Sellergren, B. Grafting of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Films on Silica Supports Containing Surface-Bound Free Radical Initiators. Macromolecules, 2002, 35, 79-91.
  • Bereczki, A.; Tolokan, A.; Horvai, G.; Horvath, V.; Lanza, F.; Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B. Determination of Phenytoin in Plasma by Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction. J. Chromatogr. A, 2001, 930, 31-38.
  • Quaglia, M.; Chenon, K.; Hall, A.J.; De Lorenzi, E.; Sellergren, B. Target Analogue Imprinted Polymers with Affinity for Folic Acid and Related Compounds. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 2146-2154.
  • Lanza, F.; Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B.; Bereczki, A.; Horvai, G.; Bayoudh, S.; Cormack, P.A.G.; Sherrington, D.C. Development of a Semi-automated Procedure for the Synthesis and Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Applied to the Search for Functional Monomers for Phenytoin and Nifedipine. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2001, 435, 91-106
  • Dad, S.; Hall, A.J.; Hodge, P. Preparation and Cyclo-depolymerisation (CDP) of Some Olefin-containing Polyesters via Olefin Metathesis. Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 2000, 40, 466-467.
  • Hall, A.J.; Hodge, P.; McGrail, C.S.; Rickerby, J. Synthesis and Depolymerisation of Cyclic Oligo(Alkylidene Isophthalate)s by Cyclo-Depolymerisation. Polymer, 2000, 41, 1239-1249.
  • Hall, A.J.; Miller, J.D. Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects of Copper (II) Coordination to Bis-N,N'-(salicylidene)-1,2-diaminoethane-Based Hydrogel Polymer Membranes and the Permeation of Cations Through Them. J. Mater. Chem., 1997, 7, 727-732.
  • Chaggar, R.; Hall, A.J.; Miller, J.D. Iron (II) Coordination to Bipyridyl-Based Hydrogel Polymers. Polymer, 1996, 37, 5313-5316.

Review articles

  • Hall, A.J; Hodge, P. Recent Research on the Synthesis and Applications of Cyclic Oligomers. React. Funct. Polymers, 1999, 41, 133-139.
  • Hall, A.; Nugent, D.A.; Sherrington D.C. Pumice as an Aid in Industrial Chemistry. Current Topics in Catalysis, 1997, 1, 61-71.

Book chapters

  • B. Sellergren, B.; Hall, A.J. In Supramolecular Chemistry: from Molecules to Nanomaterials, Steed, J.W.; Gale, P.A., Eds; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; pp 3255-3282.
  • Hall, A.J.; Emgenbroich, M.; Sellergren, B. In Templates in Chemistry II, Topics in Current Chemistry, Vol. 249, Schalley, C.A.; Dötz, K.-H.; Vögtle, F., Eds.; Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany, 2005; pp 317-349.
  • Sellergren, B.; A.J. Hall, A.J. In Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Man-Made Mimics of Antibodies and Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry, Techniques and instrumentation in analytical chemistry, Vol. 23, Sellergren, B., Ed.; Elsevier Science B.V.: Amsterdam, 2001; pp 21-57.

Patents

  • Hall, A.J. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers. US Patent 9,464,150, October 11, 2016.
  • Sellergren, B.; Emgenbroich, M. & Hall, A.J. Imprinted Polymers with Affinity for Phosphorylated Proteins and Peptides. US Patent 9,329,186, May 3, 2016.
  • Sellergren B.; Titirici M.-M. & Hall A.J. Molecularly imprinted surfaces using surface-bound templates. US Patent 9,035,025. May 19, 2015.
  • Sellergren, B.; Manesiotis, P.; Hall, A.J. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Extraction of Components from Foodstruffs. US Patent 7,750,090, July 6, 2010.
  • Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B.; Karmalkar, R.; Chenon, K. Functional Monomers for Molecular Recognition and Catalysis. US Patent 7,332,553, February 19, 2008.
  • Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B.; Karmalkar, R.; Chenon, K. Functional Monomers for Molecular Recognition and Catalysis. US Patent 7,208,557, April 24, 2007.
  • Hall, A.J.; Sellergren, B.; Karmalkar, R.; Chenon, K. Functional Monomers for Molecular Recognition and Catalysis. US Patent 6,870,021, March 22, 2005.

Miscellaneous articles

  • Emgenbroich, M.; Hall, A.J. 2. Doktorandenseminar über moleckular geprägte Polymere. Nachr. Chem. 2005, Heft 2, 171 (in German).
  • Hall, A.J.; Emgenbroich, M. Symposium über molekular geprägte Polymere. Nachr. Chem. 2004, Heft 4, 477 (in German).

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Last Updated 20/11/2018